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Woodlands Park Nursery School and Childrens Centre, Woodlands Park Road, N15 3SD
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|Department||Call Connection Phone Numbers - we are in no way affiliated with any organisation mentioned|
|Woodlands Park Nursery School and Childrens Centre, Woodlands Park Road, N15 3SD||02088020041|
|OFSTED||(Calls cost 7ppm + network charges) 0844 822 9250|
|AQA||(Calls cost 7ppm + network charges) 0843 902 8116|
|Tax Code||(Calls cost 7ppm + network charges) 0843 504 7289|
|Department for Education||(Calls cost 7ppm + network charges) 0844 822 9409|
About UK Schools
1 History of English education
2 Legally compulsory education
2.1 Schools and stages
2.2 State-funded schools
2.3 Independent schools
2.4 Education by means other than schooling
2.5 Post-16 education
2.5.1 Sixth form colleges / further education colleges
2.5.2 Apprenticeships and traineeships
2.5.3 Post-16 area reviews
3 Higher education
3.1 Postgraduate education
4 Adult education
5 Qualifications Frameworks
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
History of English education
Main article: History of education in England
Until 1870 all schools were charitable or private institutions, but in that year the Elementary Education Act 1870 permitted local governments to complement the existing elementary schools in order to fill any gaps. The Education Act 1902 allowed local authorities to create secondary schools. The Education Act 1918 abolished fees for elementary schools.
Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged 5 to 18, either at school or otherwise, with a child beginning primary education during the school year they turn 5. Children between the ages of 3 and 5 are entitled to 600 hours per year of optional, state-funded, pre-school education. This can be provided in “playgroups”, nurseries, community childcare centres or nursery classes in schools.
Below is a table summarising the most common names of the various schools and stages. Grammar schools are normally state-funded but selective schools, admitting children from 11 years old onward, but there are exceptions.
Early Years Nursery None, though individual schools may set end of year tests. 3-4 Primary Lower Infant Pre-preparatory
KS1 Year 1 5-6
Year 2 6-7
KS2 Year 3 7-8 Junior
Year 4 8-9 Preparatory
Year 5 9-10 Middle
Year 6 SATS
A grammar school entrance exam, often the 11-plus 10-11
comprehensive schools selective schools
KS3 Year 7 None, though individual schools may set end of year tests. 11-12 Secondary Lower school High school Grammar school
Year 8 12-13
Year 9 13-14 Upper Senior (Public)
KS4 Year 10 14-15 Upper school
Year 11 GCSE 15-16
KS5 Year 12 Advanced subsidiary level or school-set end of year tests. 16-17 College Sixth form
Year 13 A-Levels 17-18
The government has been unable to recruit sufficient teachers and lecturers. There are 1,000 too few computing teachers, 1,200 too few physics teachers and 1,850 too few maths teachers. Lecturers in further education colleges fell by just under 20,000 from 2010 to 2017. The public sector pay cap is blamed. English secondary schools have 15,000 fewer teachers and teaching assistants than they had two years ago. This leads to larger classes as well as pupils getting less individual attention.
Main article: State-funded schools (England)
Some 93% of children between the ages of 3 and 18 are in education in state-funded schools without charge (other than for activities such as swimming, theatre visits and field trips for which a voluntary payment can be requested, and limited charges at state-funded boarding schools).
Since 1998, there have been six main types of maintained (state-funded) school in England:
Community schools (formerly county schools), in which the local authority employs the schools’ staff, owns the schools’ lands and buildings, and has primary responsibility for admissions.
Free schools, introduced by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition following the 2010 general election, are newly established schools in England set up by parents, teachers, charities or businesses, where there is a perceived local need for more schools. They are funded by taxpayers, are academically non-selective and free to attend, and like Foundation schools and Academies, are not controlled by a local authority. They are ultimately accountable to the Secretary of State for Education. Free schools are an extension of the existing Academy Programme. The first 24 free schools opened in Autumn 2011.
Foundation schools, in which the governing body employs the staff and has primary responsibility for admissions. School land and buildings are owned by the governing body or by a charitable foundation. The Foundation appoints a minority of governors. Many of these schools were formerly grant maintained schools. In 2005 the Labour government proposed allowing all schools to become Foundation schools if they wished.
Voluntary Aided schools, linked to a variety of organisations. They can be faith schools (about two thirds Church of England-affiliated; just under one third Roman Catholic Church, and a few another faith), or non-denominational schools, such as those linked to London Livery Companies. The charitable foundation contributes towards the capital costs of the school (typically 10%), and appoints a majority of the school governors. The governing body employs the staff and has primary responsibility for admissions.
Voluntary Controlled schools, which are almost always faith schools, with the lands and buildings often owned by a charitable foundation. However, the local authority employs the schools’ staff and has primary responsibility for admissions.
In addition, three of the fifteen City Technology Colleges established in the 1980s still remain; the rest having converted to academies. These are state-funded all-ability secondary schools which charge no fees but which are independent of local authority control. There are also a small number of state-funded boarding schools.
English secondary schools are mostly comprehensive, although the intake of comprehensive schools can vary widely, especially in urban areas with several local schools. Nearly 90% of state-funded secondary schools are specialist schools, receiving extra funding to develop one or more subjects in which the school specialises, which can select up to 10% of their intake for aptitude in the specialism (though relatively few of them have taken up this option). In a few areas children can enter a grammar school if they pass the eleven plus exam; there are also a number of isolated fully selective grammar schools and a few dozen partially selective schools. A significant minority of state-funded schools are faith schools, which are attached to religious groups, most often the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church.
Main article: Independent school (United Kingdom)
Approximately 7% of school children in England attend privately run, fee-paying independent schools. Some independent schools for 13”18-year-olds are known for historical reasons as ‘public schools’ and for 8”13-year-olds as ‘prep schools’. Some schools offer scholarships for those with particular skills or aptitudes, or bursaries to allow students from less financially well-off families to attend. Independent schools do not have to follow the National Curriculum, and their teachers are not required or regulated by law to have official teaching qualifications.”
See also: Education Otherwise
The 1944 Education Act (Section 36) stated that parents are responsible for the education of their children, “by regular attendance at school or otherwise”, which allows children to be educated at home. The legislation places no requirement for parents who choose not to send their children to school to follow the National Curriculum, or to give formal lessons, or to follow school hours and terms, and parents do not need to be qualified teachers. Small but increasing numbers of parents do choose to educate their children outside the conventional school systems. Officially referred to as “Elective Home Education”, teaching ranges from structured homeschooling (using a school-style curriculum) to less-structured unschooling. Education Otherwise has supported parents who wished to educate their children outside school since the 1970s. The state provides no financial support to parents who choose to educate their children outside of school.
Students at both state schools and independent schools typically take GCSE examinations, which mark the end of compulsory education in school. Above school-leaving age, the independent and state sectors are similarly structured.
Students over 16 typically study in the sixth form of a school, in a separate sixth form college, or in a Further Education (FE) College. Courses at FE colleges, referred to as further education courses, can also be studied by adults over 18. Students typically study Level 3 qualifications such as A-levels, BTEC National awards and level 3 NVQs. Some 16”18 students will be encouraged to study Key Skills in Communication, Application of Number, and Information Technology at this time.
The National Apprenticeship Service helps people 16 or more years of age enter apprenticeships in order to learn a skilled trade. Traineeships are also overseen by the National Apprenticeship Service, and are education and a training programmes that are combined with work experience to give trainees the skills needed to get an apprenticeship.
In 2015, the Department announced a major restructuring of the further education sector, through 37 area reviews of post-16 provision. The proposals were criticised by NUS Vice President for Further Education Shakira Martin for not sufficiently taking into account the impact on learners; the Sixth Form Colleges’ Association similarly criticised the reviews for not directly including providers of post-16 education other than colleges, such as school and academy sixth forms and independent training providers.
Main article: Universities in the United Kingdom
The chapel of King’s College, Cambridge University.
London School of Economics Library Roof
Campus of New College Durham, a college of further and higher education
Higher education in England is provided by Higher Education (HE) colleges, university colleges, universities and private colleges. Students normally enter higher education as undergraduates from age 18 onwards, and can study for a wide variety of vocational and academic qualifications, including certificates of higher education and higher national certificates at level 4, diplomas of higher education, higher national diplomas and foundation degrees at level 5, bachelor’s degrees (normally with honours) at level 6, and integrated master’s degrees and degrees in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary science at level 7.
Students who have completed a first degree can apply for postgraduate and graduate courses. These include:
Postgraduate certificates, postgraduate diplomas, postgraduate certificate in education ” level 7 courses shorter than a full master’s degree
Master’s degrees (typically taken in one year, though research-based master’s degrees may last for two) ” taught or research degrees at level 7
Doctorates (typically taken in three years) ” research degrees at level 8, the top level of the qualifications frameworks, often requiring a master’s degree for entry. These may be purely research based (PhD/DPhil) or research and practice (professional doctorates). “New Route” PhDs, introduced in 2001, take at least 4 years and incorporate teaching at master’s level.
Postgraduate education is not automatically financed by the state.
Until the academic year 2011-2012 most undergraduates paid fees that were set at a maximum of £3,375 per annum. These fees are repayable after graduation, contingent on attaining a certain level of income, with the state paying all fees for students from the poorest backgrounds. UK students are generally entitled to student loans for maintenance. Undergraduates admitted from the academic year 2012-2013 have paid tuition fees set at a maximum of up to £9,000 per annum, with most universities charging over £6,000 per annum, and other higher education providers charging less.
Adult education, continuing education or lifelong learning is offered to students of all ages. This can include the vocational qualifications mentioned above, and also:
The Open University runs undergraduate and postgraduate distance learning programmes.
The Workers’ Educational Association offers large number of semi-recreational courses, with or without qualifications, made available by Local Education Authorities under the guise of Adult Education. Courses are available in a wide variety of areas, such as holiday languages, crafts and yacht navigation.
The two qualifications frameworks in England are the Regulated Qualifications Framework (RQF), for qualifications regulated by Ofqual, and the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications (FHEQ) for qualifications granted by bodies with degree awarding powers, overseen by the Quality Assurance Agency. These share a common numbering scheme for their levels, which was also used for the earlier Qualifications and Credit Framework. The RQF is linked to the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) and the FHEQ to the Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA).
Level 1 Foundation diploma
GCSE (grades D – G)
NVQ level 1 EQF level 2
Level 2 Higher diploma
GCSE (grades A* – C)
NVQ level 2 EQF level 3
Level 3 Advanced diploma
NVQ level 3 EQF level 4
Level 4 Certificate of Higher Education
HNC (awarded by a degree-awarding institution) QF-EHEA Intermediate qualifications within the Short Cycle
BTEC Professional award, certificate and diploma level 4
Higher National Certificate (HNC)
NVQ level 4 EQF level 5
Level 5 BTEC Professional award, certificate and diploma level 5
Higher National Diploma (HND)
NVQ level 4
Diploma of Higher Education
HND (awarded by a degree-awarding institution) QF-EHEA Short Cycle (within or linked to first cycle)
Level 6 BTEC Advanced Professional award, certificate and diploma level 6
NVQ level 4 EQF level 6
Professional Graduate Certificate of Education QF-EHEA Intermediate qualifications within the First Cycle
Ordinary bachelor’s degree
Bachelor’s degree with honours QF-EHEA First Cycle (end of cycle)
Level 7 BTEC Advanced Professional award, certificate and diploma level 7
NVQ level 5 EQF level 7
Postgraduate Certificate of Education QF-EHEA Intermediate qualifications within the Second Cycle
Integrated master’s degree
Master’s degree QF-EHEA Second Cycle (end of cycle)
Level 8 NVQ level 5 EQF level 8
Doctorates QF-EHEA Third Cycle (end of cycle)
According to the Schools Minister, “strong evidence has been emerging of grade inflation across subjects” in recent years. The Confederation of British Industry, the EEF and the British Chambers of Commerce are also complaining of falling academic standards. Employers often experience difficulty in finding young people who have such basic employability skills as literacy, numeracy, problem solving, teamworking and time management. As a result, employers either have to pay for employees’ remedial education, or they must hire foreign candidates.
School type Primary Secondary
All 19.3% 15.2%
Church of England 13.1% 12.0%
Roman Catholic 16.3% 14.0%
Non-religious 21.5% 15.6%
Schools with fewer free school meal children than local postcode average (2010)
School type Primary Secondary
Church of England 63.5% 39.6%
Roman Catholic 76.3% 64.7%
Non-religious 47.3% 28.8%
An analysis of 2010 school data by The Guardian found that state faith schools were not taking a fair share of the poorest pupils in their local areas, as indicated by free school meal claims. Not only was this so at an overall national level, but also in the postcode areas nearby the schools. This suggested selection by religion was leading to selection of children from more well-off families.
Funding for English schools will change to a national formula in 2018, with some schools likely to gain from the new formula and others likely to lose. Secretary of State for Education, Justine Greening claims funding will depend less on the postcode lottery. The National Audit Office (NAO) claims funding will be cut by 8%. According to councils funding cuts will potentially prevent many local authorities meeting legal obligations to schools in areas like checking staff for criminal records and ensuring buildings are asbestos free.